Medicine

Relation between Biotechnology and Enzymology | by Qurat ul Ain Waseem | Oct, 2021

Qurat ul Ain Waseem
Enzymes for Biotechnology

Relate Enzymology subject with your degree

Biotechnology:

Biotechnology is characterized as the exploitation of natural procedures for industrial and varied purposes, and can be comprehensively characterized as “utilizing life forms or their items for business purposes.” Particularly the genetic manipulation of microbes for the creation of anti-infection agents, hormones, and so on.

It incorporates a wide scope of ventures, for example:

  • Pharmaceuticals Industries
  • Bio-fuels Industries
  • Paper and Pulp Industries
  • Food and Brewing Industries
  • Agricultural Industries

Enzymology:

Enzymology is a branch of the sciences that are concerned with the study of enzymes.

Enzymes in Biotechnology:

Enzymes are biological catalysts or assistants (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms needed for a particular activity or nutrient. Enzymes work in a mild domain like the bodily condition of living organisms, and they bolster life by synthesizing and degrading materials that comprise the building blocks of the living being and by making energy

How Enzymes are related to Biotechnology?

Enzymes are biocatalysts that speed up reactions. So, in biotechnology, enzymes are used to make cultures and used in the development of medicines. Enzymes are also used in the process of food preservation. They can be used in diagnosing diseases or they provide services for the washing and other environmental processes.

Application Of Enzymes in Biotechnology:

There Are Various Applications of Enzymes in Biotechnology:

1. Food Biotechnology (Making improved products)

Companies in the early 1980s which produce enzymes have been using genetic engineering techniques to improve production efficiency and quality and to develop new products. There are clear advantages here for both industry and consumers, with major improvements in enzyme production giving better products and processes.

At present, modern biotechnology can be used to give a range of advances in enzymatic production technology:

o Improved productivity and cost-effectiveness in existing processes. By producing enzymes more efficiently, the number of raw materials, energy, and water needed to make a product can be reduced by as much as one-half by changing from a traditional strain of microbe to a genetically modified one.

o Companies can tailor their enzymes more precisely to customer demands for products with specific properties.

o Manufacturers can supply enzymes that otherwise could not be produced in large enough quantities, giving the consumer access to a wider variety of products. An example is an amylase-based product that makes bread stay fresh for longer.

2. Medicine Industry:

Enzymes are extracted from living organisms like bacteria and molds. They are biological catalysts capable of skyrocketing expeditiously the speed of a chemical change while not using excessive energy, and remain unchanged once the reaction is complete.

o Analytical tests: Diabetics use strips of paper fertilized with aldohexose enzyme to observe their glucose.

o The presence of enzymes wherever they must not be gift may also facilitate to diagnose of the malady. For example, when the liver is diseased or damaged, enzymes leak into the bloodstream. Testing the blood for these enzymes will ensure liver injury.

o Therapeutic accelerators: Enzymes are typically used as medicines to interchange enzyme deficiencies in patients like is that the use of blood coagulation factors to treat bleeder’s disease, or the opposite where proteases are accustomed to degrading fibrin; to forestall the formation of dangerous blood clots. Nuclease could be potential medical care for the monogenic disorder, but it is not clear how commercialized and therapeutically successful this has been.

o Proteases are accustomed to cleaning wounds and thus accelerate the healing method.

o Drug manufacture: The chemical synthesis of complicated medicine is usually troublesome, and corporations apply enzymes to perform chemical conversions

o In a semi-therapeutic way, enzymes are accustomed to aid digestion, to supplement the natural amylase, lipase, and protease produced by the pancreas. People with lactose intolerance lose the enzyme lactase. Lactase supplements facilitate avoiding abdomen upsets for these folks.

o, Treat Disorders: To break the internal blood clots, to dissolve the hardening of walls of blood vessels, to dissolve the wound swelling to promote healing.

3. Detergent Industry:

Enzymes are also routinely added to detergents to help remove stains from fabrics, caked-on food from dirty dishes, and patient soils from surgical instruments, including endoscopes.

for example, those made by grass and sweat, more adequately than enzyme-free cleansers. Without enzymes, a great deal of energy would be needed to make the high temperatures and vigorous shaking expected to clean garments successfully. Enzymes utilized in clothing cleansers must be reasonable, stable, and safe to utilize. At present, just protease and amylase catalysts are fused into cleansers. Lipase enzymes separate too easily in the washing machine to be exceptionally valuable in cleansers. In any case, their dependability is being considered and further created through strategies,

for example, genetic screening and modification.

4. Brewing Industry:

Beer is biotechnology in one of its simplest forms. To make the alcohol, first, you release the sugars from your grain of choice through soaking. Many companies like Dogfish, Blue Moon, and Stella Artois use wheat for some varieties of their beer. Then the sugars are added to hops and the two are brewed together. Then yeast is added to do its magic and begin the process of fermentation; this can take weeks. After that, the beer is flavored to taste and ready to drink.

The use of yeast is an early application of biotech because yeast is a group of single-celled fungi that breaks down enzymes.

Through biotechnology, we can edit the genes in yeast to make it do what we want like ferment the starch and sugars from plants to make biofuels and renewable chemicals for biobased products and food ingredients.

5. Textile Industry (Desiring of Cotton):

In the textile industry, untreated cotton fibers can break easily when being woven into textures. To forestall this breakage, they are covered with a jelly-like substance through a procedure called sizing. After the fibers have been woven into the fabric, the agents expected to additionally complete the material cannot adhere to the jelly-covered textures. Hence, the protective sizing agents must be expelled by a procedure called de-measuring. Amylase enzymes are generally utilized in de-sizing, as they do not debilitate or influence cotton filaments, nor do they hurt the environment.

From the entirety of the above portrayal of Medicine, food, detergents, textiles, and brewing industries, it has been presumed that catalysts are significant in biotechnology. These both are significant for the welfare of humankind.

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