Cancer

What is cancer?. Cancer is basically abnormal growth of… | by Çağla | Dec, 2021

Çağla

Cancer is basically abnormal growth of cells. What happens when someone get cancer is their cells divide and multiple uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body.

After this spread these cancer cells have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue.

Our body is made up of trillions of cells and cancer can growth anywhere in the body.

What causes cancer?

Everyone has some risk of getting cancer The risk never zero. But you can minimize your risk by staying away from certain behaviors including smoking, food habits .

Lifestyle factors: People who aren’t physically active have a higher risk of getting cancer than people who play sports. However that risk is depending on environmental factors and genetic changes. Aging, exposure to hormones, environmental toxins can cause mutations.

High-fat diet : Cancer rates and eating habits show a high-fat diet may lead to several cancers, including colon, lung, and postmenopausal breast cancer, as well as heart disease and other chronic diseases.

Smoking : Poisons in cigarettes can damage our DNA. When DNA is damaged a cell begin growing out of control and lead to cancer.

Family History: The more relatives who have had the same or related types of cancer, and the younger they were at diagnosis, the stronger someone’s family history is.

It is more likely that the cancers are being caused by an inherited faulty gene.

The strength of your family history depends on: who in your family has had cancer ,the types of cancer they have had , how old they were at diagnosis, how closely related these relatives are to each other.

Genetic Mutations:

Each of cells have DNA which is packaged in the body . genes inside which contains a set of instructions telling the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide.

Our cells follow these instructions and we stay healthy. The mutations that occur in DNA, lead to undesired functions in normal cells and they become cancerous tissues.

Cancers are caused by damage to the DNA in your cells. These changes are gene mutations. At the same time gene mutations can cause changes for good or bad in cells.

Exposures to certain viruses: AIDS disease which is immune system weakening and human papilloma viruse that cause HPV cancer.

What are features of cancer cells?

Cancer is characterized by development without the need of growth factors. limitless potential for division, hide from the immune system, ignore apoptosis signals.

Normal cells listen to signals that tell them to stop growing and apoptose when they become old or damaged but cancer cells dont do that.

These cancer cells don’t respond to these signals so growth doesn’t stop.

Cancer cells rapidly grow abnormally than normal cells.

Cancer cells decreases need of hormones and growth factors coming from outside of the cell.

Life cycle of normal cells : grow ,divide and die. The life cycle of cancer cells is much different. Cancer cells uncontrollably grow, divide and this abnormal cells invade body parts such as breast or lung.

What is the difference between tumor and cancer?

The terms tumor and cancer are sometimes used interchangeably which can be misleading.

Most cancers form tumors, but not all tumors are cancerous.

Tumor can be benign or malignant .

Benign tumors are grow slowly and not spread in the body. But malignant tumors are uncontrollably grow in order to spread everywhere , tissues or cells

Tumor and cancer are not the same thing.

As we said before not all tumors are not a form of cancer.

The word tumor basically refers to a mass. for example, a collection of fluid growth occurs in solid tissue such as an organ, muscle, or bone.


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